Blood diamonds, or "conflict diamonds," have been a hot topic since the 1990s. The conflict minerals paradigm emerged during an unprecedented rise in the global demand for tantalum around the turn of the millennium, which pushed east Congolese workers and transnational traders to mine for coltan (the mineral from which tantalum is extracted).

The mineral coltan is one of the resources that is playing an important role in the technological . Conflict minerals substances like tantalum, tungsten, tin, and gold are used in a variety of popular electronics, including smartphones. Paul Collier, an expert on the economics of . Mining projects can displace communities, exacerbate land disputes and disrupt local livelihoods, all of which can drive violent extremism in areas at risk of recruitment and radicalization (Sharland, Grice, & Zeiger, 2017). Minerals from the mines are sent to multiple proxy "corporations" and are eventually sold to a smelting business, rendering further tracing nearly impossible. Rebel groups, governments and mining companies exploit mineral resources, fueling civil and interstate conflict as players vie for control over riches. OECD definition of conflict-affected and high-risk areas: Conflict-affected and high-risk areas are identified by the presence of armed conflict, widespread violence or other risks of harm to people. Armed conflict may take a variety of forms, such as a conflict of international or non-international character, which may involve two . 4. "Conflict Minerals" is the term used to describe certain minerals such as gold, wolframite, casserite, columbite-tantalite and their derivative metals, which include tin, tungsten and tantalum that are sourced from mines under the control of violent forces in the Democratic The aim of sustainable mineral development is to ensure mineral use is kept to a minimum amount without having a negative impact on economic growth. . Particularly tantalum, tin, and tungsten, which, along with gold,. Knowledge Centre. Conflict minerals substances like tantalum, tungsten, tin, and gold are used in a variety of popular electronics, including smartphones. control over State mineral resources compared to those with agricultural resources. . Conflict minerals: The mining of metals for electronic products is fueling a civil war that has resulted in the loss of more than five million lives so far and shocking human rights violations including mass slaughter and violent rape. The teachers panicked, sent the children home, and fled. Some companies go to great lengths to make sure that they are sourcing potential conflict minerals responsibly, whereas others have made little progress. In addressing conflict minerals and other supply chain issues, though, we shouldn't lose sight of the purpose of transparency: It isn't just about seeing what is going on but contributing solutions for some of the most pressing and endemic challenges we face in supply chains. The four key parts of this strategya transparent supply chain, secure mining sites, improved governance of mining and trade, and improved livelihood options for minersare all realistic policy goals. The rebels sell these diamonds, and the money is used to purchase arms or to fund their military actions. The United States passed legislation in 2010 to reduce the purchase of " conflict minerals " and prevent the funding of armed militias, but complex supply chains in the DRC mineral sale business. Coltan is an expensive metallic mineral which is used to regulate electricity in mobile consumer goods such as smart phones, cameras, laptops, etc. The economic, social, and environmental impacts created by conflict minerals in the DRC illustrate the adverse impacts of corporate social irresponsibility. Conflict minerals also destroy tropical forests in the region. This is achieved by efficient use of minerals as well as recycling and the . Purchasing conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of Congo funds warlords in the DRC, who often enslave people to work in mines and utilize child labor. In particular, three types of conflict are common in organizations: task conflict, relationship conflict, and value conflict. . Both organizations have multi-pronged approaches including . Part of the problem is that the government charges $500 for licenses, which the association of traders told us was a prohibitively high price to pay. First, they aim to re-establish legitimate control over the mines. Wohlfeil explained that on. The Global Conflict Tracker is an interactive guide to ongoing conflicts around the world of concern to the United States with background information and resources. The problem is that it was levered into Dodd Frank is the answer. A rapidly increasing demand for electronic goods in the past decade has led to a significant increase in demand for certain metals. The "conflict minerals" are then laundered into the global supply chain by export houses, before being transformed into refined metals by large international smelting firms. Section 1502 of U.S. Dodd Frank Act: the landmark US law requiring responsible minerals sourcing. Getty Images. . They are typically sourced from war-torn countries including the Democratic Republic of Congo, where their mining and sale has historically funded armed groups associated with murder, rape, and other . As we saw in our last guide to mobile phones (in 2016), the market is very much split when it comes to conflict minerals. A brutal war has been waging in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) for the past 15 years.

We see it as necessary for any company manufacturing electronics to have a policy on the sourcing of conflict minerals - this would include the company's commitment to sourcing 3TG minerals in a . These chemicals can be highly toxic to humans and wildlife. Most Central African coltan is considered conflict mineral because mining areas are controlled by armed factions and organized crime. There are 27 phosphate mines in Florida, covering more than 450,000 acres. OECD definition of conflict-affected and high-risk areas: Conflict-affected and high-risk areas are identified by the presence of armed conflict, widespread violence or other risks of harm to people. These two major approaches complement each other but their limitations show that they must be accompanied by a profound reform in governance. 2015; Coghlan et al. . Diamond prices have been controlled by major players such as De . The Congo conflict minerals problem is complex, but the roadmap to a solution exists. War-torn Central Africa supplies about a fourth of the world market as production declines in Australia, the previous world leader. The term "conflict minerals" is being used since the late 1990s in the elaboration of voluntary agreements and regulations for supply chain governance (Ille 2016).It is currently used to refer to tin, tungsten, tantalum and gold (3TG) that originate from DRC or its neighbouring countries and are related to the financing of civil conflicts (Fitzpatrick et al. For example, tin extracted in Canada, Russia or Argentina is considered a conflict mineral by definition. Conflict resources are natural resources extracted in a conflict zone and sold to perpetuate the fighting. Definitions. These minerals are then smuggled out and the proceeds used to purchase weapons and ammunition. Achieving them will require coherence and commitment . The influence of oil on conflict is often poorly understood. Such resource is common in the Democratic Republic of Congo and has been the cause of a brutal civil conflict that has troubled the nation and its people. A major reason for the deterioration in public security is that armed conflicts have broken out over mining rights in the mining regions. There is both statistical and anecdotal evidence that the presence of precious commodities can prolong conflicts (a " resource curse "). Dr. Denis Mukwege, in a New York Times opinion piece: "A conflict-free minerals industry would greatly benefit the people of Congo and contribute to ending the unspeakable violence they have endured for years. These so-called 'conflict minerals', such as tin, tantalum, tungsten and gold, can find their way into our mobile phones, cars and jewellery. Conflict minerals could be in any of the electronics you use Certain minerals (including tin, tantalum, tungsten and gold) have been linked with funding killings, violence, rape, and other human rights abuses in the Democratic Republic of Congo and other conflict zones. Getting conflict minerals out of the supply chain all comes down to the decision a consumer makes to effectively boycott companies that sell products whose mineral origins cannot be proven conflict. Today, Intel uses conflict-free minerals in all of its microprocessors, and the global Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative (CFSI) has taken off. The SEC rules define conflict minerals as 3TG metals, wherever extracted. These chemicals can be highly toxic to humans and wildlife. Now the country is in the throes of . conflict or, much more frequently, are used to fuel a conflict. The bloody takeover late last month of Palma, a northern town at the centre of Mozambique's vast oil and natural gas prospects, has again prompted international - and particularly regional . For tin, the most lucrative conflict mineral in eastern Congo last year, 10 main smelting companies process over 80 percent of the world's tin, almost all of which are based in East Asia. Conflict minerals have been a source of human rights abuses since their inception. The "conflict minerals" narrative is generally understood as the use of funds from minerals to support and perpetuate violence by non-state armed groups. After civil war broke out in central and western Africa, diamond profits were used to fund wars, weapons, slavery and anti-government rebellions. Blood Diamonds are often produced through the forced labor of . It is certain that conflicts will . So Khalilzad must fill the gap and meet with the Taliban himself. The Congo is a massive country, the size of Western Europe. Although open communication, collaboration, and respect will go a long way toward conflict management, the three types of conflict can also benefit from targeted conflict-resolution tactics. Second, wealth from resources may enable rebel groups to finance their operations. Countries rich in minerals such as cobalt, coltan, cassiterite, copper, and gold are often marred by corruption, authoritarian repression, militarization, and civil war. These smelters will sell the minerals up the supply chain until they are finally placed into finished products such as computers and cell phones. Conflict Minerals. What this means then, is that a complete lack of arguments has nothing to do with a blissful relationship and everything to do with being conflict avoidant personalities. Mineral resources such as gold, tin, tungsten, and tantalum are natural resources found in plentiful quantities in the Eastern region of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). while the term "conflict mineral" can be used to refer to any mineral resource being exploited by a belligerent faction in order to perpetuate hostilities, it is most commonly associated with columbite-tantalite, cassiterite, wolframite, and gold ore, collectively known as 3tg minerals.i these ores, used to produce tantalum, tin, tungsten and Conflict Minerals Regulation In politically unstable areas, armed groups often use forced labour to mine minerals. Big Five - Tough Social Issues In Mining. The Congo has been utterly cursed by its natural wealth. Villagers hid for months on an island in a river nearby. No other commodity has had such an impact on international security. It's the same in the South American jungles where Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil meet and where officials say they've found . While some of these artisanal mines are conflict-free, issues occur when armed actors take over a natural resource-rich area, and regularly raid miners working there. 1. . Armed conflict may take a variety of forms, such as a conflict of international or non-international character, which may involve two . Gold is used to coat wires. The country now has a good reputation for mining and the Rwandan people see their mines as an asset. Second, more long-term, they aim to regulate trade to prevent conflict minerals from reaching the international market. Processing Chemicals Pollution. Between one-quarter and one-half of interstate wars since 1973 have been connected to one or more oil-related causal mechanisms. The supply chain for lithium and other critical minerals, a physically tiny part of energy storage and electric vehicles, is immense and complex. [15] Diamond prices have been controlled by major players such as De . Four common conflict minerals, clockwise from top left: coltan, cassiterite, gold ore, and wolframite. Conflict Minerals. 3. Caterpillar is committed to the responsible sourcing of Conflict Minerals used in our products. 3. A new alliance between the DRC and Rwanda against rebel groups brings new threats and opportunities for peace in the Great Lakes Region, while illegal coltan mining continues to fund conflict . The problem is much of these minerals are mined in the Congo by slave labor, whose proceeds are used to perpetuate deadly conflict and terrorize local communities. In the SEC rule, "DRC conflict-free" is defined as minerals that were extracted and did not directly or indirectly benefit armed groups in the covered countries.

Studies highlight that countries with high-value resources such as diamonds are more likely to experience civil war. Conflict minerals reforms and military pressure are reducing the power of armed groups. What is coltan? minerals, and oil, are used to produce revenue. The Conflict Minerals Movement Driven largely by student activism and consumer demand, the conflict minerals movement has seen sustained momentum in recent years -Over 175 schools have participated in the Conflict-Free Campus Initiative -More than 25 schools have passed conflict mineral resolutions -6 cities and 2 states have callLearn More For decades the trade in minerals, precious stones, and other commodities has played a central role in fuelling some of the world's most brutal conflicts . Lawlessness and human rights abuses are some of the worst in the world here. Why Conflict Minerals Are Horrible. They are typically sourced from war-torn countries including the Democratic Republic of Congo, where their mining and sale has historically funded armed groups associated with murder, rape, and other . This kind of pollution occurs when chemical agents (such as cyanide or sulphuric acid used by mining companies to separate the target mineral from the ore) spill, leak, or leach from the mine site into nearby water bodies. Minerals are non-renewable natural resources that are vital for the construction, manufacturing and energy industries. The rule requiring disclosure of conflict minerals will go into effect in 2014. . While illicit rough diamonds have been used by rebels to fund conflicts across many African .

These are minerals mined in conditions of armed conflict and human rights abuses, notably in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Many children in their village were in school when conflict broke out between militia and soldiers in May. This kind of pollution occurs when chemical agents (such as cyanide or sulphuric acid used by mining companies to separate the target mineral from the ore) spill, leak, or leach from the mine site into nearby water bodies. For years, human rights groups have documented severe human rights issues in mining operations. In U.S. public debates about the 1991 and 2003 Iraq wars, both sides focused . Third, the high levels of . Conflict over access to land and resources between LSM and ASM miners can flare up into localized violence at the mine site. The legislative tools to help make this a reality are available to international policy makers, but they must be enacted and enforced. Conflict diamonds captured the world's attention during the extremely brutal conflict in Sierra Leone in the late 1990s. Publications. The four most commonly mined conflict minerals are cassiterite (for tin), wolframite (for tungsten), coltan (for tantalum), and gold ore. Also, though many-colored gems are much rarer than Diamonds, they are usually significantly less valuable, especially in rough, uncut form. Conflict Minerals Division for Counter Threat Finance and Sanctions The Office of Threat Finance Countermeasures, in conjunction with other State Department bureaus and U.S. agencies, actively works to sever the links between mineral resources and conflict through government-to-government diplomatic efforts. Nations of the world now recognize the need to stem the consumption of conflict minerals, only sourcing 3TG's from certified conflict free mines. Nine phosphate mines are currently active. World Vision staff and volunteers sing and dance with children at a Child-Friendly Space outside Kananga, in Kasai-Central, DRC. This project is supported by . Phosphate mines typically range in size from approximately 5,000 to 100,000 acres. Russia's multi-pronged invasion of Ukraine has thrust the country into a conflict that many on the European continent had thought was one for the history books. The trade in natural resources finances conflict and human rights abuses all over the world. Congress included it in Dodd-Frank out of concern for what is known as the "resource curse"the phenomenon . Nine mines are 100 percent reclaimed and released from reclamation obligations. With regard to the extraction and trade of Conflict Minerals, Caterpillar will not knowingly provide support to, contribute to, assist with, or facilitate armed conflict in the DRC. In 2019, according to a recent report by Securing America's Energy Future, China processed 65 percent of the world's nickel, 82 percent of the world's cobalt, 93 percent of global manganese . First, the prospect of resource rents may be an incentive to rebel or secede. Conflict minerals reforms have made it less profitable for armed groups to mine tin, tungsten, and tantalum.